First I give a brief guide to translations of the primary literature mentioned on these pages. Then I give references for works cited.

Guide to Literature

Beowulf has been translated a great many times. Tolkien's own translation is presently being edited by Michael Drout. Otherwise, Seamus Heaney's translation is probably as good a place to go as any; it's circulating in various editions, among them

Beowulf, trans. by Seamus Heaney (London: Faber and Faber, 1999).

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was translated by Tolkien in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight; Pearl; and, Sir Orfeo (London: Allen and Unwin, 1975). However, I prefer the Oxford World's Classics translation,

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: A Verse Translation, trans. by Keith Harrison (Oxford: Oxford university Press, 1998).

The Poetic Edda, including Völuspá and other poems, has recently been translated by Carolyne Larrington, again in the Oxford World's Classics series: The Poetic Edda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). Although somewhat archaic, however, Bellows's translation, The Poetic Edda, 2 vols (New York: Princeton University Press, 1936) may be found just as satisfactory, and is available at The Internet Sacred Text Archive.

Grettis saga has been translated as Grettir's Saga, trans. by Denton Fox and Hermann Pálsson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974).

Works Cited

Carpenter, Humphrey, J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography (London: Allen and Unwin, 1977).

Carpenter, Humphrey (ed.), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien: A Selection (London: Allen and Unwin, 1981).

Asbjřrnsen, Peter Christen, Popular Tales from the Norse: With an Introductory Essay on the Origin and Diffusion of Popular Tales by George Webbe Dasent, trans. by George Webbe Dasent (Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas, 1859).

Tolkien, J. R. R., 'Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics' [1936], repr. in Tolkien 1983, pp. 5-48.

----, 'On Fairy-Stories' [1939], repr. in Tolkien 1983, pp. 109-61.

----, 'On Translating Beowulf' [1940], repr. in Tolkien 1983, pp. 49-71.

----, 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' [1953], repr. in Tolkien 1983, pp. 72-108.

----, and E. V. Gordon (eds), Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 2nd ed. rev. by Norman Davis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).

----, The Monsters and the Critics: And Other Essays, ed. by Christopher Tolkien (London: Allen & Unwin, 1983).

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